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American Revolution: Causes and Effects

Gaynor Borade Mar 11, 2020
In 1492, when the Americas were discovered by Christopher Columbus, colonization soon found its way into the New World giving rise to avarice and exploitation on a large scale. Thereafter, the natives and early settlers struggled through different phases of the American Revolution, to get rid of all the wrongs which the colonization had brought to their territory.
The discovery of the Americas - the two continents - was no less than the discovery of gold. This was a time when industrialization was directed towards gaining more and more profit. The need for new markets and lands to provide raw materials was at the apex of all transactions, especially in the case of European powers like Britain and France.
This new and highly intoxicating game of power and politics was a responsible factor for the British landing on American soil and establishing thirteen colonies.
Here too, they implemented and followed similar kind of strategies and policies as they did in case of their other colonies, which means that they governed in the name of the British crown and imposed rules, regulations, and taxes on the natives - the factors which collectively led to the American Revolution in 1775.


The Native Americans and the early settlers who had learned to live in harmony till the advent of colonialists, had to handle the unjust policies of the British individually and together. Britain began using this new colony to explore different options for earning revenue.
The impositions of taxes on tea, glass, and paper, among a host of other daily requirements, were part of royal proclamations, and the revenue that was generated by such means was utilized for funding the military angle of the colonies. There were many attempts to instigate the natives against the settlers and vice versa via serious lobbying efforts.
However, with the conquest of every new territory and with every increase in the tax rates, the Americans sought refuge in the liberal ideals that were propounded by theories such as that of social contract and several others.
People collectively opposed British intervention in their daily affairs, and almost everyone was unhappy with their policies with regards to taxation.
Owing to the growing pressure of increasing taxation on the native Americans (as the British increased taxes after every single defeat they had to face in any of their colonies), they learned to manufacture their own glass, paper, and even paint. However, they had to depend on their colonizers for certain commodities.
For instance, though America had a huge market for tea, the soil and the climatic conditions did not suit the cultivation of the crop. Hence, they had no option but to import it from Britain, for which they were heavily taxed.
Social awareness to the problem and response to the illegitimate state authority were the ideals of republicanism. The protection of liberty and civic virtue empowered the Americans to consider disobedience against unjust laws, leading to the final outburst and immediate cause that triggered the revolution - The Boston Tea Party.


Ideals of republicanism that were adopted by the natives and settlers created much required paradigm shift to fight colonialism. Writs of Assistance issued by British customs officials were challenged. The permission to whisk warehouses and ships without any cause and purely on suspicion was deliberated upon as violation of constitutional colonist rights.
The Sugar Act that led to an economic downturn was hit with demonstrations and rebellious outbursts on the basis of 'no taxation without representation'. The Currency Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, and Quartering Act, which were designed to exploit the ruled and secure British interests were systematically boycotted.
The agitated Americans indulged in protests and meetings. Despite the violent onslaught at the hands of the British troops, tempers remained flared. The people of the colonies soon began choosing representatives to deal with the crisis.
There was no initial possibility for the unification of the leaders of the thirteen colonies, but the acts of rebellion were simultaneous throughout. After the famous Boston Tea Party, and the rather infamous shutting down of the harbor for trade, the representatives planned a congress in Philadelphia, to fight back and establish a new government.
Subsequently, an army was raised under the guidance of George Washington, and the Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776, amidst chaos of the American Civil War in North America. The Americans proved the power of resilience and unified action. They gave the world a lesson in true democracy. The sheer determination of the Americans ousted British regime and established the United States of America as independent.
The effects of the American Revolution have rippled on in time, within the character and spirit of every American, the democratic form of government adopted, and leadership offered in the march against forces that refuse basic human rights to the global citizen.